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By Ikhlas Ahmad 1 , Wasi Ur Rehman Khan 1 , Haris Dildar 1 , Sadiq Ullah 1, * , Shakir Ullah 1 , Naveed Mufti 1 , Babar Kamal 2 , Toufeeq Ahmad 1 , Adnan Ghaffar 3 and Mousa I. * Hussien 4, * 4,

Received: 17 August 2021 / Updated: 10 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 17 October 2021

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This work presents a low-profile, printed antenna that provides patterning and frequency reconfiguration printed on an FR-4 substrate with a size of 46 × 32 × 1.6 mm.

. The proposed antenna can operate in five different frequency bands, each known as a Mode, where there are possibilities of reconfiguration. Frequency and reconfiguration is possible with 12 p-i-n diode switches (S1 to S12). The first is enabled by switches S1 to S4 in the light patch, thus effectively controlling the resonant bands of the antenna; the latter is possible with a large lobe guide, which is facilitated by eight other switches (S5 to S12), which are installed in separate biological units made on both sides of the radiator. The proposed antenna operates in the 5 GHz band (4.52–5.39 GHz) when all switches are OFF. When S1 is ON, the operating band switches to 3.5 GHz (2.96–4.17 GHz); it switches to the 2.6 GHz band (2.36–2.95 GHz) when S1 and S2 are ON. When S3 is also turned on, the antenna switches to the 2.1 GHz Band (1.95–2.30 GHz). When S1–S4 is ON, the operating band switches to the 1.8GHz band (1.67–1.90 GHz). In all these bands, the return loss remains below −10 dB while maintaining a good impedance match. In each operating group, ON/OFF means eight p-i-n diode switches (S5 to S12) enable network conduction. The proposed antenna can transmit the main beam in five different ways in the 3.5GHz, 2.6 GHz, and 2.1 GHz bands, and three different ways in the 5 GHz and 1.8 GHz bands. Different 5G bands (2.1, 2.6, 3.5, and 5) GHz, which fall to sub 6GHz, are supported by the proposed antenna. In addition, GSM (1.8 GHz), UMTS (2.1 GHz), 4G-LTE (2.1 GHz and 2.6 GHz), WiMAX (2.6 GHz and 3.5 GHz) and WLAN (5 GHz) devices are also supported by the antenna. planned, it is a candidate for 5G/4G/3G handheld devices.

As the latest standards and methods of wireless communication continue to change, and more groups, the needs of more users appear, 5G wireless networks and The future generation of the network is expected to support several connections at the same time and have a low level. The term “low profile” refers to an overall antenna length/thickness of less than λ/10. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has identified three broad spectrum bands for 5G-mm-Wave, sub-6 GHz and sub-1 GHz, designated as high (> 24 GHz band and above), medium (1– 6 GHz), and lower bands (<1 GHz) respectively [1, 2]. The lower band provides deep and widespread 5G coverage, mm-Wave offers very fast data rates and greater channel capacity, and the second combination is provided by the middle band. So, 5G coverage and speed are determined by the band being used. Very high data rates can be achieved by using a high band, although there are problems in the implementation of mm-Wave communication and mobility. Atmospheric attenuation and other factors do not allow long-range propagation of mm-wave frequencies. The low band spectrum provides blanket coverage but at the cost of data rate. On the other hand, sub-6 GHz frequencies offer a wide range of long-range transmission and maximum data transmission, thus its potential use in urban and rural areas. for 5G network performance. As 5G is deployed around the world, networks and applications that used to operate below 6 GHz are transitioning to 5G, although the mm-wave portion of 5G has not grown as sub-6 GHz. It should also be noted that most mobile device networks operate and exist in the sub-6 GHz bands. With the development of wireless communication technology and the requirements of multi-band operation, reconfigurable antennas have the need and importance of cellular communication [3]. Tunable antennas provide optimal bandwidth utilization by tuning the operating frequency to specific frequency bands [4]. On the other hand, tunable antennas offer improved gain, energy saving [5], reduced effect of media interference and improved channel capacity [6, 7], by returning the main lobe of the radiation to the intended direction. The combination of both features, as reported in this work, can provide improved features and significant capabilities in 5G, especially in the sub-6 GHz bands. Most of the previously published work reports the use of one of these reconstruction methods. In [8, 9], a review on reconfigurable antennas is presented, reporting recent developments in reconfigurable antennas.

In [10], a low-level MIMO antenna for millimeter wave 5G applications is reported. The antenna covers frequencies from 28.2 to 30.7 GHz. A simple structure with an arrow-shaped radiator and a parallel antenna that can be reconfigured to cover the 5G sub-6 GHz band is presented in [11]. Reference [12] proposes an antenna with a unique structure for multiple applications (UMTS, WLAN and Wi-MAX) and provides frequency transmission. In [13], a frequency-modulated antenna is presented. The antenna has two slots in the main radiator and one slot in the ground plane, with two pin diode switches. Similarly, another tunable antenna with a cut-out structure in the radiator is presented in [14]. A two-pin diode has been used for the switch, which is installed in a V-shaped slot in the radiator. In [15], a monopole frequency reconfigurable antenna for LTE applications is reported. The antenna has a reconfigurable/left-handed (CRLH) unit cell. Two varactor diodes are used as actuators to cover different LTE bands. A variable frequency antenna for various applications is presented in [16]. The light patch has two pin diodes for changing the resonant wavelength and providing different multi-band performance. In [17], a compact multi-mode frequency reconfigurable antenna for portable devices is presented. The antenna is coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed, it has a large triangular shaped radiator installed and four antenna patches with three pin diode switches. The antenna provides a wide band and four other resonant bands. For Airport Surveillance Radar Band, Wi-Fi, WLAN, and ISM applications, [18] proposes a tunable, low-level antenna. References [19, 20] present a frequency tunable antenna for 5G and WLAN applications. In [21], a dual-polarized, dual-band filter antenna is proposed for 5G Base Station applications, while [22] and [23] propose multi-band antennas. operating in four and six bands, respectively, and provide a feature of changing frequency.

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In [24], a Yagi-Uda antenna is presented; provides omnidirectional and directional radiation pattern characteristics. Another tunable antenna for 1.8 GHz, capable of directing the beam in three different directions (78 degree separation) has been proposed by [25]. It also offers improved gain, made possible by a partial reflective surface (PRS). A tunable antenna, with a ground-degenerate structure and slot tuning is proposed in [26]. In [27], an antenna capable of beam steering is presented for the 2.45 GHz band (wireless network applications). Reference [28] reports a tunable antenna, whose unique feature is a single, large-scale antenna. In [29], an antenna with a range of −34° to +32° at 2.29 GHz is presented for many autonomous devices. In [30], the reconfiguration method is achieved by using a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) method in the ground section and switches with dielectric resonators. In [31], micro-electro-mechanical switches

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